Fig. 1 Simple direct current circuit with power source and load
We consider a very simple circuit where a direct current power source such as batteries is connected to a load like light bulbs.
Since power sources have internal impedance (footnote 1), we take the value as a pure resistance Rs, and take the load as a pure resistance Rl. There are no circuits without inductance or capacitance, however there are many situations where inductance and capacitance can be ignored, and most useful circuits fall into this category.
Furthermore, we also ignore attenuation from cables connecting the power source and load. This means loss from cables is much smaller than loss from the load or internal inpedance of the power source, but energy transmission is usually conducted under this condition.
The problem is whether the voltage on the load can be considered as
V = E * Rl / (Rs + Rl) Here, V = voltage on load Rl (V) E = Power source voltage (V) Rl = load resistance (Ohm) Rs = internal resistance of power source (Ohm)You may think that of course this is true, this equation is taught in elementary schools, junior high schools, high schools, professional schools, colleges, but...
If a power source without internal resistance exists, by lowering the load resistance, an unlimited amount of energy can be extracted. The derivation is simple, and is worth a try.
Kouichi Hirabayashi, (C) 2001